How to No Dig Garden – Esther Deans’ “Easy” Way to Garden

Gardening provides many health benefits – beyond just eating good, healthy food. However, gardening can be difficult for the elderly and those who have health issues. Learning how to no dig garden can make gardening a real possibility for anyone – regardless of age or health. In addition, home gardeners can benefit the environment – more specifically build the topsoil that is being rapidly depleted by current agricultural practices. David Montgomery, a geologist at the University of Washington and author of Dirt, “Estimates that we are now losing about 1 percent of our topsoil every year to erosion, most of this caused by agriculture.” Recent research has determined that the topsoil in the United States used for crops is being eroded at least 10 times faster than the time it takes for lost soil to be replaced.

Soil isn’t just dirt – it is actually an outer protective layer over the bedrock of the planet that is teeming with life: living organisms, nutrients, and minerals. The busy environment in soil provides a habitat for plants and animals as well as helping to regulate water flow and temperature. According to Ecology Action, current farming practices reportedly destroy about six pounds of soil for each pound of food produced. Indeed, worldwide only about 33 to 49 years of farmable soil remains.

Alarming? Yes. But as the home gardener, you can indeed implement practices that will help replenish Earth’s topsoil. One way to do this is through Biointensive Gardening. In another post, I will review this type of gardening. However, it is not easy – in fact, to get started, you will find Biointensive gardening to be – well, intense. However, in 1977, Harper and Row published their first book in Australia, a little gardening book called No-Dig Gardening & Leaves of Life by Esther Deans, which offers a way to grow an abundant garden, build topsoil and never have to dig in the dirt. Often called lasagna gardening in the U. S. her easy way to garden will get you started in one season. You will be amazed at the ease with which you will learn how to no dig garden.

High Yield from a No Dig Garden

Esther Deans had health issues and could not grow a garden the traditional way. But, she didn’t know how effective this method of gardening would be – no research was out there since really no one had tried it before. Her first try was a 6 X 8 foot garden using her no dig method – and from just the first planting, her yield was 49.5 pounds of potatoes. A visitor to her garden became very excited about the prospect of growing this way and during her first season of the no dig garden, she produced 200 pounds of zucchini and button squash – enough to feed her family and sell to others. Clearly, you can expect high yields from this type of garden.

How to No Dig Garden – A Garden of Paper, Straw and Hay

No dig gardens are maintained using organic principles without toil and sweat. It is easy for a child or old person to build and if built up on a raised bed, can be built and maintained by someone in a wheelchair. The idea is to build a garden on top of the existing ground – even if that means building it on top of concrete – or as in my case, on top of hard, packed red clay. The garden comprises rectangular beds raised above the ground, surrounded with hardwood, small bricks or concrete blocks, or anything that can hold the rich organic moisture in place. The no dig garden can be built in two environments – one that will go on lawn or an existing garden, the other one that will go on top of hard, rocky ground or concrete.

To build on top of a lawn or existing garden, select a sunny area. Surround the area with a wall, then spread a layer of newspapers at least a quarter inch deep. Overlap the pages of the newspaper to keep the lawn from growing through. Do not use the colored paper from the newspaper or cardboard for this step. Cover the newspaper with pads of alfalfa hay. Then sprinkle a light dusting of organic fertilizer or dry chicken manure over the hay. Cover with eight inches of loose straw and sprinkle with more fertilizer. Finally, top with a patch of good compost three to four inches deep and about 18 inches across where you will plant the seeds. According to Deans, two bales of alfalfa hay and one bale of straw will make a good-sized garden.

To build on top of hard, rocky ground or concrete, first put down a layer of old leaves, small sticks and pieces of seaweed three to four inches deep. On top of this, build the garden as described above.

Follow the steps below to build your first no-dig garden – seemingly instantly.

  1. Make a frame of any materials you have available – old timber, pallet boards that have been heat treated, bricks or concrete blocks. The purpose is to contain the garden – around the area you have selected for your garden.
  2. Cover the area with a layer of newspaper at least 1/4 inch thick, overlapping the layers four to six inches to keep weeds and grass from growing through. Thoroughly soak the newspaper before laying it down or water it once on the ground. Remember: do not use glossy colored paper as it bleeds ink that can be toxic.
  3. Cover the newspaper with pads of alfalfa hay as they come off the bale, about four inches deep. Water the hay lightly. NOTE: You can use other types of carbon containing materials such as pea straw, straw, sugar cane mulch, etc. but alfalfa has a much higher nitrogen content making it preferable for no-dig gardening.
  4. Sprinkle the hay with blood and bone fertilizer or chicken manure and lightly water it in.
  5. Cover this area with about eight inches of loose straw and lightly water in.
  6. Again sprinkle the straw with blood and bone fertilizer or chicken manure and lightly water.
  7. Top in a circle of compost about four inches deep and 17-18 inches across. If you have enough compost, you can cover the whole area.

Planting in the No Dig Garden

This is quite simple: Plant your seedlings in the compost. Water gently.

Maintaining the No Dig Garden

To maintain any type of no-dig garden, remember one simple rule – don’t dig it!!!! If you dig the garden, you will ruin all the work the earthworms and other aspects of nature are doing for you. Earthworms continue to cultivate the soil and they don’t like to be disturbed.

After harvesting and the end of growing season, the layers will have rotted down into the soil, enriching it and improving the structure. At that time, you can replenish the no-dig layers and will replenish them again at the end of each major growing season.

How to replenish the layers of the no-dig garden:

  1. Add a layer of manure. As an option, you can also add compost.
  2. Next, cover the manure layer with a layer of straw
  3. Water the straw and compost it in and you are ready for the next growing season.

No-dig Gardening is the Way to Go

Learning how to no dig garden is definitely a great way to enrich your soil, improve the environment and make your job as a gardener easier. For those who have disabilities or who are elderly, this could be a way to be able to garden again or for the first time. This is definitely a way to make your life and gardening more sustainable. If you would like more information about how to no dig garden, I found these sites to be helpful:

Deep Green Permaculture – No Dig Gardening

Charles Dowding’s No dig gardening on No Dig Gardening

How to Use Mulch in the Vegetable Garden

If you read the post on the benefits of mulching in the vegetable garden and are convinced that you want to start mulching, your next concern might be how to use mulch in the vegetable garden. It can’t be as easy as just spreading it around the plants, can it? Well, there are a few things you will want to consider before you begin mulching in your vegetable garden. Although inorganic mulch is beneficial, I find that organic mulch provides all the benefits while providing nutrients and improving the structure of the soil as it decomposes.

What is Organic Mulch?

Organic mulches are biodegradable. When you use them in your garden, they will decompose over time. This decomposition process will return nutrients to the soil and also improve the structure of your soil. An bonus is they will invite earth worms and other beneficial insects to enrich your soil.

I believe that mulch is aesthetically more pleasing because your garden looks tidier and weeds are diminished. It also adds a critical thermal layer of protection for the soil and roots during extreme weather. If you have a plant that is borderline for your zone, the extra protection in the winter can help ensure that it survives a particularly cold period. In heat extremes, quite simply, mulch can make the difference between surviving, thriving and dying.

There are a variety of types of organic mulches:

Wood Chips as Mulch

Fresh wood chips are often available at local landfills and can sometimes be dropped off by the truckload if you know the local company that clears roads and highways in the summers. A common misconception is that fresh wood chips are bad for mulching because they tie up nitrogen during their decomposition. But, since the material will only be used on the surface of the soil and not mixed in with the soil, they will not pull nitrogen from the soil. While some say that it is best to use wood chips for shrubs and trees, I have mulched many a vegetable garden with wood chips and found them to be successful. If you are concerned about using fresh wood chips, then you can let them age before using in the vegetable garden.

Wood chips from tree services are usually a combination of bark, sapwood, hardwood and leaves so as they break down, they provide small amounts of nutrients to the soil slowly. As an added benefit, they increase the organic matter of the soil as they break down. Through the years, the organic matter works down into the soil with the activity of earthworms and insects that live and burrow through the soil. This added organic matter in the soil produces healthier plant growth.

Ideally wood chips should be applied at a depth of 4 to 6 inches. They will settle after a few weeks and like any organic mulch, need to be replenished periodically to keep providing benefits.

Bark Mulch

Shredded hardwood bark is a popular and inexpensive mulch. As a derivative of the lumber and paper industries, it is a great way to recycle. As it decomposes, this mulch helps increase soil fertility. It can come in a variety of sizes from large nuggets to smaller shreds. I think it is one of the most attractive mulches – it looks great around trees, shrubs and perennials.

If you get shredded bark that is dyes, check to ensure the dye is vegetable based and acceptable for organic gardening, if that is your goal.

Sawdust Mulch

Sawdust is readily available from sawmills so it can be inexpensive to acquire. This mulch is acidic, so it would be a good mulch for acid-loving plants such as rhododendrons and blueberries. A mere 2-inch layer of sawdust will provide good weed control. Fresh sawdust contains very little nitrogen, however, and its breakdown pulls nitrogen from the soil – so use sparingly or add extra nitrogen to the sawdust when used for mulch. To add extra nitrogen to the sawdust, mix one pound of actual nitrogen to 50 pounds of dry sawdust, to cover about a 100 square foot area in your garden. If you are using ammonium nitrate (33-0-0), add about five pounds. For ammonium sulfate (21-0-0), add about three pounds to the sawdust. If you want to use organic fertilizer, add seven pounds of blood meal.

Lay the sawdust mulch out to a depth of about 1 to 1 ½ inches being careful not to pile it up near the trunk of trees and shrubs or the stem of the plant to avoid rot. A 1/4 inch layer of sawdust can be helpful in starting seeds since it will help to keep moisture in. One disadvantage of sawdust is that it can form a crust that makes it difficult for water to soak through. Another disadvantage is that it decomposes quickly thus compacting upon itself. If you use sawdust in the garden, you will likely have to replenish it and re-fluff each year.

Grass Clippings for Mulch

They cool the root zone, conserve moisture and add massive amounts of nitrogen back to the soil. They allow you to use the refuse from mowing the yard. They can be used either fresh or dried. Use a layer only about 1/4 inch thick layer if using fresh grass so that the clippings can break down before they begin to rot. Dried clippings can go on thicker. The dried clippings also make great side dresses for vegetables. Late fall and early spring are great times to add grass clippings to the garden, mixing them into the soil at least eight inches.

Leaves as Mulch

Leaves are great as mulch and are of great nutritional benefit to the soil. Dried leaves actually contain about 80% of the original plant nutrients including carbon, potassium, and phosphorus. They also feed the earthworms and beneficial microbes. When added to your garden, leaves feed earthworms and beneficial microbes. If you go look at the soil in a forest that has decomposed leaves from years past, you will find soil that is light and rich. In addition, they can make a great looking mulch in the flower garden and they provide great insulation from the cold.

Because leaves can matt up and stick together when they get wet, it is important to shred as many of them as you can. If you don’t have a leaf shredder, you can pile them up on the lawn and run over them a few times with a lawn mower. Over time, shredded leaves become leaf mold which is a fantastic mulch that enhances the soil tremendously. For a wonderful enhancement to your garden, don’t burn your leaves this year – instead shred them and use them as a fantastic mulch.

Using Newspapers as Mulch

Newspaper is extremely helpful during cold weather for keeping your plants safe and warm. And it’s also an effective way of for keeping weeds out of your beds. Layer the sheets, overlapping the edges so they don’t separate. You can use anywhere from 2 to 20 sheets of newspaper, depending on your purpose for the mulch. Five to 10 sheets are good for weed control and 10-20 sheets for protecting the plants from the cold. Another option is to shred the newspapers, tearing by hand or even using a paper shredder. In some parts of the country, shredded newspaper in bales is available. Your local Recycling Center or Solid Waster Management facility will have information on this if available in your area.

Newspaper can be used alone, but covering it with straw or another mulch will make it last longer. The newspaper is more environmentally sound method to control weeds than traditional black plastic.

How to Apply Mulch

There are some things to keep in mind when applying mulch. The biggest thing people do wrong is not applying enough mulch. At least two to three inches are needed to smother weeds and retain soil moisture. If less than two inches of mulch is applied, light will go through allowing weed seeds to germinate.

Another important part of applying mulch is ensuring that it is not pushed up against the plants. Make sure mulch is pulled back at least an inch from tree trunks, shrubs and the crowns of your vegetables, annuals and perennials. Mulch applied up to the plant stem or trunk can hold moisture thus causing the plant to rot.

Organic mulches decompose, so they need to be replenished every year. In especially harsh summer weather, the mulch may need to be replenished in the spring and in the fall. Mulch can benefit all areas of your garden and make your gardening easier and more productive. When you mulch, it mimics the natural processes of a forest, where each year leaves fall to the ground, decaying, then recycling in the soil to provide nutrients and protection to the plants above. As an bonus, the more that you are able to use materials from your own garden as mulch, the more sustainable it becomes. And, your plants and soil will love you for providing a better environment for them.



Mulch Vegetable Gardens – Bigger Harvest, Less Weeds, Less Water, Less Disease

Mulching vegetable gardens is one of the best ways to make it better – in so many ways. Mulching is a way to be kind to your plants – and help yourself to make gardening easier throughout the season. This is because, once you mulch, you instantly reduce weeds in your garden (less work), reduce the amount of water needed (less money/resources), and help reduce pests in the garden.

There are basically two types of mulch – inorganic and organic. Inorganic mulch includes newspapers, plastic solar mulch and landscape fabric, While these work, they do not provide all the benefits of organic mulches because they do not enrich the soil. Organic mulches include grass clippings, leaves, straw, pine needles and wood chip mulch. Let’s take a look at some benefits of using organic mulch.

Mulching for Bigger Harvests

If you want a bigger harvest, then mulch vegetable gardens. This may seem rather simplistic – but sometimes the simplest things make the most difference. Mulching accomplishes many things. When you mulch deep – that is, at least six inches, you will ensure that the soil stays at a temperature that is better for the roots to soak up nutrients. That is, in cold weather mulch maintains warmth and in warm weather it maintains cooler temperatures. If you live in the hot south, during the summer, this can make a huge difference in harvests. When you mulch vegetable gardens, it is also beneficial for weed control, disease control, moisture control and pest control.

Mulching to Reduce Weeds

Let’s face it – who wants weeds in their garden? They look ugly – and if you are not careful, the weeds can easily take over the garden wiping out any veggies you have planted. Weeds are bad because they aggressively compete with the same stuff your plants need to grow well: nutrients, water and sunlight. Thus, when they invade and take over your garden, they can suck up everything your plants need to produce an outstanding harvest. While some say that a weed is just a plant that is growing where you don’t want it to grow, the garden is definitely one place you want to eliminate weeds.

Mulch helps prevent weeds in three important ways. First, when you completely cover the soil with mulch, you deprive the weed seeds of the sunlight that they need to germinate So, weeds won’t get a foothold in the garden early on. In addition, bare dirt allows weed seeds to land and then germinate. Covering your bare soil prevents the weeds from coming into contact with the soil to begin with. But, weeds are persistent beasties and some will show up anyway. I have also found that weeds that show up in the mulch are easier to see and much easier to pull out because they don’t have strong roots in the soil but are growing in the loose mulch. Reducing weeds is not the only benefit of mulch – they also

Mulching to Reduce Bad Bugs

Organic mulches are the best repelling bugs. One way they do this is by enriching the soil. As organic mulches break down, the chemistry of the soil is improved and this increases the beneficial bacteria, fungus and insects. Beneficial – or good insects keep out the populations of harmful, plant-destroying, harvest destroying insects.

While some organic mulches attract insects like saw bugs, earwigs or pill bugs, if needed, these can be easily controlled with Neem oil or diatomaceous earth. Another effective and non-pesticide way to get rid of pill bugs is to make a potato trap. To do this,

  1. Cut an old potato in half.
  2. Scoop out a depression in each half.
  3. Place the cut side of the potato into the soil where you have pill bugs.
  4. Wait a few days for the pill bugs to find the potatoes and start eating them
  5. After a few days, carefully lift up your potato – in the morning is the best time to do this. Drop the pill bugs attached to the potato in a bucket and scoop up the dirt around the area to find even more bugs. Feed to chickens (yum) or dispose of away from your garden.

If you are using mulches made from cedar or cypress bark, they are helpful for repelling insects. Cedar and cypress wood both contain natural oils and chemicals that deter bugs. Cedar chips can repel, kill or can inhibit termites, cockroaches, cloth-eating moths, carpet beetles and certain ants, such as odorous and Argentine. The wood bark from these trees is resistant to decay, so it will last longer than other mulches. Cedar mulch is especially good for plants that love acidic soil – such as blueberries.

Mulching to Reduce Watering

For an abundant garden, it is important to maintain a consistent level of moisture in your soil. Plants which have adequate moisture are less likely to be stressed and they will be better able to resist insects and diseases. As mentioned earlier, mulch keeps the soil cooler in the summer so it will extend the time before plants go dormant or bolt. Since some plants bloom best in cooler conditions, mulch helps keep plants blooming longer.

In areas which have had drought conditions, mulching is almost necessary to maintain a healthy garden. But, even in areas with plenty of water, mulching helps to retain soil moisture and consistent soil temperatures, thus costing the gardener less money.

Mulching to Enrich Soil for Next Year

The biggest bonus to using organic mulches is that they will decompose and leave behind nutrient rich soil for next year’s garden. As it decomposes, mulch provides nutrients and humus and improves the soil structure, nutrients and moisture holding capacity. The decomposing mulch provides food for earthworms, stimulates microbial activity and helps beneficial soil organisms.

In the area I live, the soil is rich red clay – that is beautiful to look at and the devil to grow in. In most cases, I have resorted to using raised beds. Slowly but surely, though, I have begun uber-mulching large portions of future growing areas with deep wood chip mulch. I have found that not only does it tend to keep the weeds at bay, it is also enriching the soil and improving the composition of the soil each season. I can now dig down about four inches and have rich, dark soil that the earth worms are loving. In a few years, I will be able to move into those growing areas without the use (and expense) of raised beds.

Organic Mulch in Your Garden – Better for your Harvest and the World

As you can probably tell, I am not much for the use of herbicides and pesticides. I think the world is a better place when as few chemicals as possible are used. So, for those who agree, it is critical to find ways to improve your soil and keep pests away as expediently as possible. And for this, I say, mulch your gardens. Gardeners use both organic and inorganic mulches. While I have used both, I have found for my red clay dirt, the inorganic mulch works better because it enriches the soil each season. Whether you select organic or inorganic mulch, once you use it in your garden, you will never go without again.